OPEC+, an oil producers' alliance led by Saudi Arabia and Russia, stuck to its original plan to increase output by just 432,000 b/d in June, continuing to defy calls from major consumers led by the United States to pump more oil to keep prices down. The meeting to decide on early strength agent are still very uncertain.
What are Early Strength Agents?
Early strength agent is an admixture which accelerates the development of concrete early strength and has no significant effect on later strength. Early strength agent can accelerate the hardening process of concrete under normal temperature and low-temperature load temperature (not less than -5℃), and is used for winter construction and emergency repair projects.
Early Strength Agents Performance
Early strength agent refers to the admixture which can accelerate the development of early strength of concrete. The main mechanism of action is to accelerate the hydration rate of cement, and accelerate the early crystallization and precipitation of hydration products. The main function is to shorten the concrete construction curing period, speed up the construction progress, and improve the template turnover rate.
Where can Early Strength Agents be Used?
1. Early strength agent is suitable for steam curing concrete and normal temperature, low temperature and minimum temperature is not less than -5℃ environment construction of early strength requirements of concrete engineering. Early strength agent should not be used in hot environment.
2.The chemical substances that harm the human body or pollute the environment after mixing concrete shall not be used as early strength agents. Early strength agent containing hexavalent chromium salt, nitrite, and other harmful components is strictly prohibited for drinking water engineering and food contact engineering. Ammonium nitrate shall not be used in office, residential and other construction projects.
Classification of Early Strength Agents
Early strength agents mainly include inorganic salts (chlorine salts, phosphates) and organic amines, and organic-inorganic compounds.
1. Chloride salts early strength agents
Chlorine salts early strength agent mainly includes calcium chloride, potassium chloride, aluminum chloride and ferric chloride, among which calcium chloride is the most widely used. Calcium chloride is a white powdery substance, and its appropriate dosage is 0.5% ~ 1.0% of the cement quality, which can improve the 3d strength of concrete by 50% ~ 10% and the 7d strength by 20% ~ 40%. Meanwhile, it can reduce the freezing point of water in concrete and prevent concrete from being frozen in the early stage.
Using calcium chloride as early strength agent, the biggest disadvantage of containing Cl- ions, will make steel corrosion, and lead to concrete cracking. In order to inhibit the corrosion effect of calcium chloride on steel bars, calcium chloride and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) are often combined.
2. Sulfate early strength agents
Sulfate early strength agent, mainly sodium sulfate, calcium thiosulfate, aluminum sulfate, aluminum potassium sulfate, and sodium sulfate is used more. Sodium sulfate is white powdery thing, the general admixture amount is 0.5% ~ 2.0%, when admixture amount is 1% ~ 1.5%, the time that achieves concrete design strength 70% can shorten half or so.
Sodium sulfate has no corrosion effect on steel bar, and is suitable for concrete which is not allowed to be mixed with chlorine salt. However, due to its action with calcium hydroxide to generate strong alkali NaOH, in order to prevent alkali aggregate reaction, sodium sulfate is strictly prohibited for concrete containing active aggregate, at the same time, attention should be paid to not excessive mixing, so as not to lead to the late expansion of concrete cracking damage, and prevent concrete surface "frost".
3. Organic amine early strength agents
Organic amine early strength agents mainly include triethanolamine, triisopropanolamine and so on, among which triethanolamine is the best early strength agent.
Triethanolamine is a colorless or light-yellow oily liquid, alkaline, and soluble in water. The early strength of concrete can be improved by adding 0.02% ~ 0.05% of cement quality. Triethanolamine has a slight retarding effect on concrete, and too much of it will cause serious retarding and concrete strength to drop, so the dosage should be strictly controlled.
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Chile's government has decided to create a state-owned lithium enterprise and hopes to establish a model for the company by the end of the year, Mining Minister Marcela Hernando said in an interview.
Chile is the world's second largest lithium producer and has the largest reserves of lithium in the world. The domestic lithium industry is currently dominated by two private companies, Albemarle and SQM.
Chile wants to participate more closely in the booming lithium market after leftist President Gabriel Boric took office in March. The accelerating electrification of the global auto industry has helped push prices of lithium, a key raw material for electric car batteries, to record highs over the past year, lapping up more players, including Mexico and Argentina, who want a piece of the market.
According to Hernando, the government is setting up a task force to determine the best way to run state-owned lithium enterprises. She said the government hopes to establish plans by the end of the year for how the company will develop and what business model it will operate under.
Hernando stressed that while the state would be a major shareholder in the proposed company, it was open to private investment.
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology (TRUNNANO) is a global chemical material supplier providing high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials including graphite powder, 3D printing powder, the early strength agent.
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